CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Leadership and leaders have been much studied areas of research across many disciplines in the social sciences. Despite this interest and growth, the definition and explanation of what leadership is, what leaders do, and the factors to which leadership performance may be attributed have remained within a complex of theories each one equally useful as any other in the effort to study leadership. There is traits theory, leadership style theory, contingency or situational theory, for example, existing side by side with each other – each one giving different accounts and different ways of organizing the dynamics of leadership (Bozemann, 1979: 108-109).
It is within this theoretical diversity that the present research contextualizes itself. In this vein, scholars have largely neglected the place of values and/or value-orientations of the Filipinos in general as a mediating factor in the decision-making styles or decision-making approaches of Filipino leaders. It seems as if these values, which have their roots in the Filipinos’ historical and cultural past, are treated merely as background factors faintly influencing leadership decision-making.
Implicit as any cultural values are, they nevertheless lie at the deepest recesses of the Filipino psyche. The argument is especially tight and strong for the
The turn of recent political and economic events in the
The local government leaders who have responded positively and proactively to meet the needs of the residents in their own communities are on the increase. Among them are the city mayor of
The administration of both Marides Fernando and JV Ejercito is marked by the growth of their respective city governments. Their terms had high-mark accomplishments both for the city government itself and for the residents of the city. It would indeed be interesting to find out the critical factors involved in their leadership. Surely, there are a lot of factors involved, as any other social science study would have to admit. But the interest of the researcher is to look at the influence of the personal values of the leader and how these values shaped the leadership process in the way the leader manage people, resources, and the implementation of programs and projects.
A casual observation of the two city mayors, especially in the way they do things, reveals that they have been certainly nurtured on values anchored on good relationships with people, on doing worthwhile acts and deeds, and trying all efforts to achieve a planned objective. Their official and unofficial pronouncements, fed to the media, likewise showcase such concern for people and good deeds, as well as doing the best that they can to alleviate the current economic status of the people and the country.
Statement of the Problem
The study addresses several important and related questions. Among these are:
Which Filipino value-orientations may have contributed to the leadership behavior and performance of the two city mayors? Which value-orientations may have provided the basis for their leadership decisions and actions? Which value-orientations did the two city mayors rely on as guide for their leadership decisions and actions?
Inasmuch as the study uses the human information processing model as the conceptual framework, how may this model describe and explain value orientations as the bases of the city mayors’ leadership decisions and actions?
Given that value-orientations originate from childhood experiences and held in the memory as scripts or schemas, how did the two city mayors come to have the value-orientations which now guide their decision and action behaviors? To which socialization processes in childhood were they exposed that led to their value-orientations being shaped, built up, and sustained in their adult life?
To what extent have the value-orientations of the two city mayors affected their leadership role as city mayors? Do the two city mayors believe that in basing their decisions on their personal value-orientations, a formula for the successful implementation of decisions that they made is guaranteed? Did the two city mayors’ decisions and actions based on value-orientations and related beliefs on leadership contributed to their effective leadership performance?
Among the value-orientations to which the two city mayors were socialized and exposed to was the practice of managing business enterprises wisely. To what extent did this value-orientation influence the leadership decisions and actions of the two city mayors especially in the implementation of their programs and projects in the city government? Has such value-orientation been effective for these leaders?
How about the specific value-orientations that are derived from private business management concepts and practice, namely total quality management, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness? To what extent have these sub value-orientations been applied and used as decision guide by the two city mayors?
Which programs and projects, and other activities of the city government have been benefited by the two city mayors’ value-orientations founded on private business management concepts and practices? How may these programs, projects, and activities compare with similar ones but managed without or with less application of private business management concepts and practices?
These are the varied questions that the study hopes to answer in its findings as presented and its conclusions.
The study aims at the following objectives:
1. To describe and analyze the socialization processes that may have shaped the value-orientations regarding the leadership of the two city mayors,
2. To identify and describe the significant value-orientations of the two city mayors that may have influenced their leadership decisions and actions as city mayors, such as the use of private business management principles, concepts, and practices in public enterprises, specifically total quality management, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness,
3. To analyze and evaluate the extent of contribution of the above value-orientations to leadership performance of the two city mayors in terms of their successful implementation of city government programs, projects, and activities,
4. To compare the relative contributions of each of the abovementioned value-orientations to leadership performance and as guide to leadership decisions and actions,
5. To explore a novel way of conceptualizing leadership decision-making by using the human information processing model in which the value-orientations of the leader act as template or categorizing-organizing unit by means of which decisions and actions are based to be able to guide future decisions/actions and performance, and
6. To draw lessons and insights on both theoretical and methodological areas of research, provide appropriate conclusions, and suggest recommendations on how to study leadership.
Significance of the Study
The findings of the study add to the literature on leadership that anchors on the human information processing model. Existing literature leans more on leadership traits and qualities, leadership behavioral styles, situations/contingencies, leadership as a function of the interplay among the leader’s qualities, the task, and the followers, etc. This study, by using the general cognitive approach of the human information processing model, enriches the study of leadership in the Philippine setting. As can be seen in the review of related literature, Filipino scholars prefer life histories of leaders and case studies of famous government officials with focus on the various contexts of leadership, which may include their responses to the challenges in their administration.
The study also adds to the increasing narrative accounts of the development of
To local government executives, the study may provide a learning module in how to use their positions and status in the community to the benefit of the city and its residents.
Scope and Delimitations
The study covers the value orientations of the two city mayors and how these relate to leadership performance using the human information processing approach. Clearly, leadership performance is assumed to be a function of how the leader processes information through the screen/lens of his value-orientations schemas and scripts. As a limitation, only value-orientations are covered as the template/schema/script that acts on the various factors that influence leader decision-making. The mind obviously has many other templates/schemas/scripts by which outside information is interpreted. The study, however, only limits itself to interpreting the outside world information through the lens of the value-orientations template/schema/script.
The other limitation is that the study only confines itself to the relationship between the value-orientations involved and the product of such interpretation and processing, which is leadership performance in terms of decisions and actions that lead to effective implementation of the leader’s programs, projects, and other activities in the city government.
The study also may be limited by basing its conclusions on two cases, which are very high-profile cases. The former city mayors Marides Fernando and JV Ejercito are respectively the wife and son of more famous politicians. Hence, they have inherited some image aspects of the administrations and corresponding accomplishments of their illustrious husband and father respectively. At the same time, the example of their predecessors may have to be sustained as a responsibility to continue the work that have been done but which cannot be done within the three full terms of nine years’ limit.
CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The research on leadership is plenty. The foreign literature consists mostly of American sources found in books. The local literature is often published as case studies, life histories, autobiographies and biographies, if not university theses and dissertations of selected Filipino leaders.
Because of the abundance of theories on leadership, it is convenient to break down the literature into trait theory, leadership behavior or leadership style theory, situational or contingency theory, and “new leadership” theories and frameworks.
The first theories on the leadership phenomenon to come out was trait theory. Considered leaders then were those described as “great men.” The idea of a “great man” or “great person,” which goes as far back as the era of the ancient Greeks, seems to imply that only a select few are good enough to be called leaders. Certain common characteristics or qualities are supposedly possessed by great men. The premise is that those who became leaders had qualities different from those who remained followers. Chemers (1995: 83) roughly assigns the acceptance of the trait theory by the community of scholars and researchers from around 1910 to World War II.
Avery (2004) used an umbrella term to apply to all trait theories, which is “classical paradigm.” Avery’s classical leadership paradigm includes the dominance by a pre-eminent person or an “elite” group of people who commands or maneuvers others to act towards a goal. Examples of classical leadership abound in history, and these leaders show coerciveness. These include the pharaohs, Alexander the Great, the Roman emperors, Adolf Hitler of
Greenleaf (1977) seems to be referring to the same kind of coercive leader when he classified leaders into two types: strong natural leaders and strong natural servants. His strong natural leader takes charge, make the decisions and give the orders. Strong natural leaders, just like the coercive leaders, are also assertive and driven by the need for acquisition or dominance.
On the other hand, there are assertive leaders who are benevolent in the sense that they shower benefits to the people. Lee Kuan Yew of
Among the traits ascribed to a leader is intelligence. This trait often emerges in studies such that some social science scholars have admitted it as part of the qualities of leaders. According to Kotter (1990: 106), “people who provide effective leadership in big jobs appear to be always above average in some basic form of intelligence.” The meta-analysis of Judge, Colbert & Ilies (2004, in Gill, 2006: 37) found that intelligence and leadership are significantly associated.
In addition to intelligence, other qualities appearing important to leadership include integrity, self-confidence, dominance, sociability, and persistence or determination (Northouse, 1997: 17, in Gill, 2006: 38). The analysis of Charan & Colvin (1999, in Gill, 2006: 38) suggests the following characteristics of successful CEOs:
- integrity, maturity, and energy,
- business acumen (deep understanding of business, strong profit orientation),
- people’s acumen (judging people, leading teams, coaching and growing people, and cutting losses or mismatches between people and jobs),
- organizational acumen (engendering trust, sharing information, listening expertly as well as diagnosing underperformance, delivering on commitments, change orientation, and being decisive and incisive)
- curiousity, intellectual capacity, and a global mindset (externally oriented, eager for knowledge of the world, and adept at connecting developments and spotting patterns)
- superior judgment,
- insatiable appetite for accomplishments and results, and
- a powerful motivation to grow and convert learning into practice.
In Deloitte & Touche (2000, in Gill, 2006: 39), the characteristics of good corporate leadership were found to be the ability to make difficult decisions, ability to lead a company during a crisis, trustworthiness, honesty, and intelligence.
Today, after all the studies on traits or qualities that are supposed to be associated with leaders, Gill (2006) says that there is no one set of personal qualities or competencies that characterize leaders. Most characteristics are cognitive, emotional or interpersonal, and some are deeply embedded in individual values. Whether they are exhaustive or consistently displayed is highly questionable. Some tend to emphasize the individual in isolation rather than in relationship with others. There are leaders who do not possess all the traits and yet are often effective. There are also leaders who possess many of the traits but are often not effective. Contradictory findings result from an adherence to trait theory.
Even decades back, the review of 120 trait studies by Stogdill (1948, in Chemers, 1995) revealed that no reliable and coherent pattern of leader traits could be discerned. The mass of inconsistent and contradictory results led Stogdill to conclude that traits alone do not identify leadership. He pointed out that leadership situations vary dramatically in the demands which they place upon the leader (Chemers, 1995: 84).
Leadership Behavior/Leadership Style Theory
Chemers (1995: 83) places the leadership behavior period from the start of World War II to the late 1960s. The emergence of this group of theories may be traced to Frederick Taylor’s “scientific management” studies at the start of the twentieth century. This was a new focus of attention away from the lack of a consistent set of leadership traits.
Kurt Lewin and associates (in Chemers, 1995: 84) experimented on three leadership styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. Autocratic style was equated with tight control; democratic was characterized as involving participation and the use of the majority rule; and laissez-faire I the leader had low levels of activity. They found out that the democratic style had more beneficial results on the group process than the other styles. Rensis Likert (1961, in Gill: 2006: 42) came up with exploitative autocratic, benevolent autocratic, consultative and democratic. Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1968, in Gill, 2006: 42) produced autocratic, persuasive, consultative and democratic leadership styles.
The model of leadership that rose led to corresponding assessment methods such as the use of the managerial grid (Blake & Mouton, 1964, 1978, in Gill, 2006: 42). In the managerial grid, leaders are described and assessed according to the degree they emphasized tasks as against emphasis on people. This model gained considerable popularity among leadership development specialists and consultants. Later, it was prescribed that people-centered behavior was more effective in getting results (Gill, 2006: 43).
Another leadership model based on task and people orientation is that developed by Adair (1973, 1983, 1984, in Gill, 2006: 43). This is the action-centered leadership (ACL) model. ACL elaborates that people orientation focuses separately on the individual and the team rather than people as a whole. Effective leaders address needs at three levels: the task, the team, and the individual. The more balanced the needs of the task, team and individual, the more effective is leadership. The problem with the model is in how tasks might be interpreted.
Gill (2006: 45) evaluates the strength and weaknesses of leadership-style theories. He said that these theories remain unfulfilled for stressing on the leader, the followers, and the task and deemphasizing the leadership situation. They also focus on behavior but do not address values. Moreover, it is not leadership style that makes a great leader but the underlying personal qualities that make the style effective, according to Goffee and Jones (2000, in Gill, 2006: 45).
Chemers (1995: 85) add that the attempts to relate the behavior of actors to group and organizational outcomes have proven to be difficult. Although the leader’s consideration behavior was generally associated with subordinate satisfaction, this may not always be the case. The relationship between leader-structuring behavior and group productivity reveal very few consistent patterns.
Furthermore, findings on the effectiveness of different leadership styles appear to be inconsistent (Korman, 1966; Larson et al, 1976; Nystrom, 1978; in Gill, 2006: 45). It is difficult to identify the impact of leadership style because of extraneous factors in the situation. Leadership-style theories have also failed to take account of informal leadership, whereby leaders emerge regardless of any formal structure.
From the name alone, this group of theories looks at leadership as dependent on contingencies or situations. The major ones are the field theory of Fred Fiedler, the path-goal theory, the situational leadership model of Hersey and Blanchard, and Vroom and Yetton’s normative decision theory.
Fiedler’s contingency theory developed the so-called LPC scale which centered on a personality measure, “esteem for the least preferred co-worker,” which Fiedler found to be related to group performance. The person who gives a very negative rating to a poor co-worker is classified as task-oriented while the one who gives a positive rating is relationship-motivated (Chemers, 1995: 86). The effectiveness of a leadership style – task-oriented or people/relationship-oriented style – depends on the favorableness of a situation in terms of: a) how defined and structured the work is, b) how much position power or authority the leader has; and c) the relationship between the leader and the followers. A situation is highly favorable when work is clearly structured and the leader has great position power and good relationships with the group. An unfavorable position is one that is characterized by unstructured work, little position power, and poor relationships with the group. However, Fiedler’s model has been criticized for inconsistent results and confusion over the measurement instruments (Gill (2006: 47).
The path-goal theory of leadership employs the expectancy model of work motivation (Evans, 1970; House, 1973; House & Mitchell, 1974, in Gill, 2006: 47). A person’s motivation (effort) depends on his assessment of whether the effort would lead to good performance, the probability of a reward as a result of the good performance, and the valence or value of the reward to the person. Thus, in path-goal theory, the leader increases personal payoffs to subordinates for achieving work goals and paves the way to these payoffs by clarifying the path, removing or reducing the obstacles and pitfalls, and enhancing personal satisfaction along the way. Effective leaders adopt different styles – supportive, instrumental, participative, or achievement-oriented – in different situations. Path-goal theory is mainly about transactional leadership in which the leader offers rewards to others or successful achievement of the leader’s goals (Gill, 2006: 48).
Inconsistent findings, group averaging of ratings, lack of consideration of informal leadership, doubtful causality, and measurement problems. The theory is questionable in situations where goals are constantly changing and in which leaders cannot offer task direction owing to the highly specialized nature of work (Gill, 2006: 48).
Hersey & Blanchard (1969, 1993, in Gill, 2006: 48) relate four leadership styles – telling or directive, selling or consultative, participating, and delegating – to the followers’ or subordinates’ readiness for them (maturity). Readiness is the ability and confidence to carry out a task. From a telling style, the leader moves to a more relationship-oriented and ultimately, delegative or empowering style. The model assumes flexibility in the style of the leader as well as the ability to diagnose the situation and the style that is needed.
Vroom & Yetton’s normative decision theory identifies decision-making styles: autocratic (leader makes decisions alone), consultative (leader makes decisions after consulting with subordinates), and group (leader allows subordinates to share in decision-making responsibilities). It is assumed that task-motivated leaders tend to be autocratic while relationship-motivated leaders tend to use group-oriented and participative decision-making styles (Chemers, 1995: 88).
The situational characteristics which are considered most important in this model are: 1) the expected support, acceptance, and commitment to the decision by subordinates, and 2) the amount of structured, clear, decision-relevant information available to the leader. Three general rules determine which style or sets of style become effective. The first rule is that autocratic decisions are less time-consuming and are more efficient. The second rule specifies that if the leader does not have sufficient structure and information to make a high-quality decision, he must consult with subordinates to gain the necessary information and enlist their aid and advice. The third general rule states that if the leader does not have sufficient support from subordinates to be assured that they will accept the decision, the leader must gain subordinate acceptance and commitment through participation in decision-making (Chemers, 1995: 88).
The normative model assumes that leaders can quickly change their behavior to fit the demands of the situation. On the other hand, research support for normative decision theory is sparse and the recollective analysis is open to distortion and bias (Chemers, 1995: 88-89).
There are similarities between Fiedler’s model and the normative decision model. Fiedler’s situational-control dimension which includes leader-member relation and task structure are similar to Vroom and Yetton’s characteristics of follower acceptance and structured information availability. The various situations in Vroom and Yetton’s analysis would fit closely into Fiedler’s situational-control dimension. The two theories make very similar predictions. Autocratic decisions are likely to be efficient and effective when the leader has a clear task and the support of followers. Despite the similarity, the two theories differ on the question of the ability of people to modify and change their decision styles. Fiedler favors more the view that leadership styles are difficult to change, while the normative model assumes that leaders can quickly and easily change their behavior to fit the demands of the situation.
The study of Bass (in Chemers, 1995: 89) suggests that some leaders across many situations tend to use more directive, task-oriented, autocratic styles while another type of leader is more likely to employ the participative, open, relationship-oriented styles. There is possibility then that leadership styles may be stable and enduring, as Fiedler predicted.
Murphy (2008: 12-14) offers an elaboration of the situational approach. He asserts that a fault of most leadership studies is emphasis on the individual rather than upon the individual as a factor in a social situation. The leader, he says, does not inject leadership but is the instrumental factor through which the situation I brought to a solution. This emphasizes the leadership process as a whole. Furthermore, groups do not act because they have leaders but they secure leaders to help them to act. Leadership comes when an individual releases in the situation of which he is a part certain ideas and tendencies which are accepted by the group because the indicate solution of needs. Leadership is that element in a group situation which when made conscious and controlling, brings about a new situation that is more satisfying to the group as a whole.
The concept of process calls attention to the fluidity of the leadership situation. Traits are not fixed qualities of a person, nor fixed in the relation of two people but are functions of a three-cornered relation – between the persons concerned and the job/task. The leadership process is an interplay of forces, an integrative activity. The situation is that there is a leader with his abilities and drives, and that there are the group, the material resources, viewpoints, desires, and needs – and a condition of readiness for leadership (Murphy, 2008: 12-14).
Hollander & Julian (2008: 15-17) are also contemporary analysts of leadership processes, but they opt for a fuller analysis of leadership as a social influence process. The situational approach is to them spurred by the recognition that there are specialized demands made upon leadership depending upon the nature of the group task and other aspects of the situation. The main focus of the situational approach is the study of leaders in different settings, defined in terms of different group tasks and group structure. The leader provides a resource in terms of adequate role behavior devoted toward the group’s goal attainment. In turn, he receives greater influence associated with status, recognition, and esteem.
Parallel to the concept of the leader “initiating structure,” the leader in Hollander & Julian’s scheme also sets the basis for relationships within groups. He initiates structure by affecting the process which occurs within that structure. The authors quote Selznick (1957: 37), that the leader’s function is “to define the ends of group existence, to design an enterprise adapted to these ends, and to see that the design becomes a living reality” (Hollander & Julian, 2008: 17).
The weakness of contingency/situational theories does not explain how leadership styles vary according to the organizational level or at top executive level. They do not explain how leaders can change either their style or the situation; do not explain the leadership processes of acquiring and interpreting the meaning of information, social networking, and strategic decision-making. As there are endless contingencies, there would also be endless varieties of leadership. Finally, these theories do not refer to values, which is a key aspect of leadership.
New Leadership Theories
Transactional leadership theory is one of the current theories of leadership. It emphasizes on the exchange between the leader and the followers. The work of George Graen and his associates (Chemers, 1995: 91) shows that the nature of exchange between leaders and subordinates can have far-reaching effects on group performance and morale. This is the vertical dyad linkage model wherein the leader develops a specific and unique exchange with his subordinates. The exchanges range from a true partnership in which the subordinate is given considerable freedom and autonomy in defining and developing a work-related role to exchanges in which the subordinate is restrained and controlled. As expected, the more positive exchanges are associated with higher subordinate satisfaction, reduced turnover, and greater identification with the organization. On the other hand, the vertical dyad linkage model does not elucidate the causes of good and proper exchanges.
Follower attitudes or personality have long been associated with leadership effects. Among these are dogmatism, the need for achievement, work values, and locus of control, all of which show impact on leader behavior and follower attitude (Chemers, 1995: 92).
Transactional leaders practice management by exception and contingent reward according to Gill (2006: 51). They appear to be strongly directive and tend not to use the consultative, participative, and delegative styles. They set objectives and performance standards but do so in a directive rather than participative manner. Such behaviors only run the risk of gaining only compliance rather than commitment. Transactional leaders also tend to use rewards for performance on the basis of directives about objectives. Such leadership stifles human development.
Transformational leaders differ from transactional leaders. Transformational leadership occurs when both leader and follower raise each other’s motivation and sense of higher purpose. According to Burns (1978: 20, in Gill, 2006: 50), transforming leaders address people’s higher-order needs for achievement, self-esteem, and self-actualization. It encourages people to look beyond self-interest for the common good. Transformational leaders have strong values. They are concerned with end values like liberty, justice, and equality. Indeed, values that reflect concern for others are the mark of transforming leaders. The impact of transformational leadership is reflected in motivation, empowerment, and morality.
In Bass and Avolio’s (1997, in Gill, 206: 52-53) model of transformational leadership, the leaders use one or more of the four “Is,” namely: individual consideration, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and idealized influence. Individualized consideration is listening actively, identifying individuals’ personal concerns and needs, providing matching challenges and opportunities to lean in a supportive environment, delegating to people as a way of developing them, giving developmental feedback, and coaching them. Intellectual stimulation is reflected in questioning the status quo, presenting new ideas to followers and challenging them to think, encouraging imagination and creativity in rethinking old assumptions and old ways of doing things, and not publicly criticizing errors of followers. Inspirational motivation is communicating a clear vision of the possible future, aligning organizational goals and personal goals, treating threats and problems as opportunities to lean, and providing meaning and challenge to the work of their followers. Finally, idealized influence which is closely related to charisma, is expressing confidence in the vision, taking personal responsibility for actions, displaying a sense of purpose, determination, persistence, and trust in other people, and emphasizing accomplishments rather than failures.
Visionary leadership involves transforming an organizational culture in line with the leader’s vision of the organization’s future (Sashkin, 1988, in Avery, 2004: 54). Visionary leadership may also be termed charismatic or inspirational leadership. Many in history can be called visionaries: Jesus Christ, Buddha or Mohammad, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, among others. Despite being idealized in the literature, visionary leaders often employ coercive tactics. Visions may be developed and proclaimed by the leader but may also emerge from the organizational members. Certain aspects of visionary leadership appear to be universally recognized, such as: being trustworthy, just, honest, charismatic, inspirational, encouraging, positive, motivational, confidence building, dynamic, good with teams, excellence-oriented, decisive, intelligent, a win-win problem-solver, and exercising foresight.
But visionary leadership has its limits. Followers often place unrealistic expectations on visionary leaders (Nadler & Tushman, in Avery, 2004: 25). Followers can become dependent on leaders, believing that the leader has everything under control. Also, innovation can be inhibited if people become reluctant to disagree with the visionary leader.
The charismatic leadership theory is also about visionary and transformational leadership. Charisma is a special quality that enables the leader to mobilize and sustain activity within an organization though specific personal actions combined with perceived personal characteristics (Nadler & Tushman, 1995: 108). After some research studies, the resulting approach to studying charismatic leaders are the following patterns of behavior:
1. Envisioning: articulating a compelling vision, setting high expectations, and modeling consistent behaviors.
2. Energizing: demonstrating personal excitement, expressing personal confidence, and seeking, finding, and using success.
3. Enabling: expressing personal support, empathizing, and expressing confidence in people.
Charismatic leadership theory has its limitations. Some of the potential problems include: unrealistic or unattainable expectations which can backfire if the leader cannot live up to the expectations that are created; dependency and counterdependency, reluctance to disagree with the leader, need o continuing magic, potential feelings of betrayal, disenfranchisement of next levels of management, and limitations of range of the individual leader (Nadler & Tushman, 1995: 110-111).
Given these limitations, the authors, Nadler & Tushman, propose the instrumental leadership theory as an alternative. Instrumental leadership behavior involves three elements. One is structuring. The leader invests time in building teams that have the required competence to execute and implement the re-orientation and in creating structures that make it clear what types of behavior are required throughout the organization. This involves setting goals, establishing standards, and defining roles and responsibilities. The second element is controlling or the creation of systems and processes to measure, monitor, and assess both behavior and results and to administer corrective action. The third element is rewarding, which includes the administration of both rewards and punishment contingent upon the degree to which behavior is consistent with the requirements for the change.
Cognitive theories liken leadership decision-making, behavior and performance to the human mind’s system of processing information. Human behavior can be described as a consequence of information processing. How people behave in a situation is a product of how the current situation is perceived, what recollections they have of previous related circumstances, and their ability to construct alternatives of behaving that are inferable from these informational inputs The way people behave is dependent on the information available and a set of processes for operating on that information. The information a leader has to work with at any moment comes from three sources: current circumstances, memory (information about past experiences), and feedback contingent upon action (Bourne, Dominowski, Loftus, & Healy, 1986: 12, 17-18)
The structure of the human mind through its schemas and scripts mediates into the emergence of behavior. That is why the human mind is constrained by the historical and social constraints that operate on a particular culture or class, and the specific life experiences of the individual. In other words, to know something and to act on the basis of that knowledge, one has to know its relationship to other events and propositions that form part of an individual’s past experiences (Mandler, 1975).
According to Lord & Maher (1993: 19-25), there are four models of human information processing. One is the rational model. This assumes that the individual is able to process information through rational means, and to be able to discover the truth of the world on a perfect, one-to-one correspondence. The next model is the limited-capacity processing model. Unlike the rational model, this model admits of the imperfections of the brain system to process data from the environment. The third model is the expert model. It contrasts the way experts and non-experts or novices process information. Experts have heuristic-driven capabilities different from novices. Experts also encode information by responding to situations that contain problem representation scripts. Novices do not have such advantage. Experts are highly efficient processors of information but only in their specific domain.
The cybernetic model of information processing is on-line processing, that is the individual continually updates his information. Past social information, for example, is intermixed over time with planning future activities and executing current behaviors. However, this works only when feedback is available and initial mistakes are not costly. In situations in which the above limitations occur, people become cybernetic information processors (Lord & Maher, 1993: 24-25).
One model that draws from a human information processing approach is that of Beach & Connolly (2005: 5-6; 16, 19). The authors are innovative in that it integrates many of the concepts that also work in the social constructivist cognitive theory. Behavior is the interplay of group and institutional dynamics and their effects upon the decisions made within and on behalf of organizations. It focuses on the ways in which decision-makers use information to arrive at decisions. Behavior is looked at using the framework Diagnosis-Action selection-Implementation. In diagnosis, the person puts events in the environment in proper context to give them meaning. This is framing which allows him to draw on previous experience to decide on what to do. Framing is embedding observed events in a context that gives them meaning. The frame of the situation is the decision-maker’s cognitive image of that particular situation.
In this vein, the work of Zhang & Sternberg (2006: 3) about intellectual styles is much related. One who is genuinely interested in the task at hand is using a creativity-generating style. Adaptive styles are value-laden as they value innovation. Intellectual styles may be stable over a period of time but they can change.
Values are beliefs and principles that are held dear by a group of people. From a casual perspective, they look like traits and personal qualities of the leader. However, they refer to the spiritual or moral qualities instead of the physical and emotional qualities in leadership traits.
Servant leadership theory, as proposed by Greenleaf (1977, in Gill, 2006: 40-41), is based on the desire to serve the needs of other people. Great leaders serve others. Greenleaf identifies the servant leader from his distinction between strong natural leaders and strong natural servants. The former takes charge, makes decisions, and gives orders while the latter are driven by the need to serve a cause. To him, only natural servants should take the lead. The servant leader is servant first. According to him, it “begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead.” The test of servant leadership is whether those served “become healthier, wiser, freer, and more autonomous.” Servant leaders help followers develop their own values that support the organization in its mission.
Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique. Skills, knowledge, and attributes make the Leader, which is one of the four factors of leadership. Indeed, the U.S. Army (1983) cites these four major actors, namely:
1. The leader. One must have an honest understanding of who he is, what he knows, and what he can do. It is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful, the leader has to convince his followers, not himself or his superiors, that he is worthy of being followed.
2. The followers. Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. The leader must know his people. The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation.
3. Communication. The leader must lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. He communicates to his people that he would not ask them to perform anything that he would not be willing to do. What and how the leader communicates either builds or harms the relationship between him and his employees.
4. Situation. All situations are different. What the leader does in one situation will not always work in another. He must use his judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the process theory of leadership is more accurate than the trait theory of leadership.
There has been a shift from the classical model of public administration to the so-called New Public Management (NPM). In the classical model, the criteria in which good and effective public administration was judged included consistency, continuity, predictability, stability, deliberateness, efficiency, equality, and rationalism. This model was the only one of public administration and its heydays were up to 1940. It remains influential today, a model which uses a mechanistic metaphor revolving around the anatomy or structures of formal organizations, control of employees, and the flow of work (Cooper, et al, 1997: 203, 209).
In the 1990s, public administration changed to a more responsive shift to citizens and their needs (Bovaird & Loffler, 2003: 17). The governance model of public administration came in, a shift which came about due to the impact of technology advances especially in the area of information and technology (ICT), overall change in the environment, complexity of social problems, the increasing use of third-party management, and the changing demographics (Cooper, et al, 1997: 203).
Frederickson & Smith (2003) laid down eight public administration theories. These are: 1) Theories of Political Control of the Bureaucracy, 2) Theories of Bureaucratic Politics, 3) Public Institutional Theory, 4) Theories of Public Management, 5) Post Modern Theory, 6) Decision Theory, 7) Rational Choice Theory, and 8) Theories of Governance. The fourth category of theories – Theories of Public Management – utilize management concepts used in business administration into public administration and governance. This is NPM which aims to combine private concepts of business administration with application in public organizations and enterprises. At all levels of government, public managers are reinventing the government, reengineering the government, attempting to be entrepreneurial, serve their customers better, more innovative, take the risk, and add value.
Market forces are being introduced into hierarchically rigid public bureaucracies, say Osborne & Gaebler (1992), in their book, Reinventing Government. Both authors give several examples of initiatives that demonstrate the new concept of how governments should function. The initiatives showcase ten operating principles that distinguish the new "entrepreneurial" form of government from the old. Thus, governments in today’s world should:
1. Steer, not row. It is not government's obligation to provide services, but to see that they're provided,
2. Empower communities to solve their own problems rather than simply deliver services,
3. Encourage competition rather than monopolies,
4. Be driven by missions, rather than rules,
5. Be results-oriented by funding outcomes rather than inputs,
6. Meet the needs of the customer, not the bureaucracy,
7. Concentrate on earning money rather than spending it,
8. Invest in preventing problems rather than curing crises,
9. Decentralize authority, and
10. Solve problems by influencing market forces rather than creating public programs.
The authors insist that their book is a comprehensive compilation of the ideas and experiences of innovative practitioners and activists across the
Bovaird & Loffler (2003: 17) identified seven elements of NPM. These included:
1. Emphasis on performance management,
2. More flexible and devolved financial management,
3. More devolved personnel management with increasing use of performance- related pay and personalized contracts,
4. More responsiveness to users and other customers in public services,
5. Greater decentralization of authority and responsibility from central to lower levels of government,
6. Greater recourse to the use of market-type mechanisms, such as internal markets, user changes, vouchers, franchising, an contracting out, and
7. Privatization of market-oriented public enterprises.
In the old classical model, a good government was an efficient bureaucracy that faithfully executed public policy. In the NPM environment with its complex social problems, a good government requires cooperation of a network of public and private institutions. More important than efficiency in carrying out tasks are initiatives, imagination, and energy in the s of public purposes. There is a need for “wicked problems” to be tackled cooperatively because they cannot be solved by one agency alone (Bovaird & Loffler, 2003: 17).
Government leaders need to promote the public sector’s capacity to adapt to challenges. A heightened need for governments to be adaptive – to monitor changes in the environment and to adapt government to citizens as “customers” – comprise factors that introduce major pressures towards change (Bovaird & Loffler, 2003: 47). A public organization must decide strategically because it concerns itself with how well it fits the requirements of its customers or constituencies, how much it focuses on what it does particularly well, and how it manages its decisions (Bovaird, 2003: 55).
The NPM incorporates business concepts and practices. There is a market-type orientation in which what the customer wants are emphasized, services are developed to meet expressed wants and potential wants in a coordinated way, the organization is outward-looking (customers come first), success is measured by the number and satisfaction level of customers, and customers are central to everything that is done (Bovaird, 2003: 77).
Loffler (2003: 164, 170) states that the new governance assumes a multiple stakeholder scenario where collective problems can no longer be solved by jut the public authorities but require the cooperation of other players (citizens, business, voluntary sector, media). Instead of controlling and directing, the new governance also demands mediation, arbitration, and self-regulation, processes which may be more important than previous public actor behavior. In this regard, the new governance involves cooperation, competition and conflict management.
Forbes, Hill, & Lynn (2006: 260-261), in relating public management and government performance, categorize three important public management constructs to understand and to examine, namely:
1. Administrative structures. These are variables which include red tape, partnership arrangements, and formalization of authority. The discretionary actions o public managers create or alter structure or infuse existing ones with distinction and meaning,
2. Managerial tools. These are administrative instruments or mechanisms used to design, implement, and evaluate policies and programs. The use of performance incentives, coordination and networking techniques, and contracts are examples of managerial tools, and
3. Management values and strategies. These reflect managerial choices with respect to goals, missions, priorities, and adaptations to the environment local or international.
The above authors define governance from performance measures at the service delivery, consequences/outcomes, and stakeholder assessment end. Government performance is the character and consequences o service provision by public agencies (p. 262).
The concern for quality and quality of service or service quality provided by public agencies demands certain capacities from public service leaders. According to Bovaird & Lofler, 2003: 195), there is a need for them to acquire the following capacities:
1. To tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty,
2. To recognize the impossibility of omniscience,
3. To maintain personal perspective and self-knowledge,
4. To critically reflect (to ask continually if current ways of leading need changes),
5. To develop leaders and leadership throughout the organization,
6. To watch out for dependency cultures, and
7. To recognize that leadership and learning go together.
The New Public Service (NPS), a concept put forth by Janet Denhardt and Robert Denhardt (2003), is a reaction to NPM. NPS focuses on the mission of government, and how to determine the collective pubic interest. The authors believe that there are considerations that should come before cost and efficiency, and that citizen participation should be a major factor in decisions. They see the role of the administrator as very complex: synthesizing the needs of citizens, interest groups, elected representatives, etc. The book offers a synthesis of the ideas that are opposed to NPM presented by Osborne and Gaebler. Their model for governance builds upon and expands the traditional role of the public administrator, which they call the Old Public Administration, and contrasts with NPM.
The local literature is dominated by the prescriptions of what a leader’s values should be. The rest are case studies of leadership styles and behavior, as well as life histories published as biographies or autobiographies. A few ones classified leadership in the Philippine setting. As part of the investigation, the profile studies of
Salazar (1997, in de la Torre, 1997: 22), a historian, cited in his article, “Limang panahon ng pamumunong bayan sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas,” that Filipino leaders must be evaluated on six criteria: 1) do their goals truly promote national interest?, 2) are their actions supportive of public welfare?, 3) are they known as persons of unquestionable integrity?, 4) are they not identified with other interests which may conflict with public interest?, 5) do they sincerely and willingly accept the tasks of being a leader?, and 6) do they communicate with the people in a language through which the people can freely express their ideas, concepts, and explain what is meaningful to them?
Along the same line, Constantino (1967: 8-10), earlier in his book, A Leadership for Filipinos, listed the criteria of a Filipino leader in terms of how he may respond to the country’s ills such as poverty, cultural stagnation, and political backwardness. The leader must 1) discover the wishes of the people and works with the people to blaze new paths, 2) involve the people in the restructuring of society, 3) recognize that leadership is a process and not an end and the leader sets in motion an “educative force,” 4) have deep confidence in the people and never to underestimate their wisdom, and 5) acknowledge unity with the people as the true foundation of leadership.
Talisayon and Ramirez (n.d., in Alfiler & Nicolas, 1997: 95) mentioned the values of local Filipino leaders: makatao mapagkalinga, may kagandahang loob (caring and humane), matapat, matuwid, makaDiyos, may moralidad (God-centered, with integrity), malakas ang loob (courageous and strong-willed), makatarungan, demokratiko, pantay-pantay ang tingin sa lahat (fair and just), and magaling, marunong (intelligent and capable). As can be noticed, the moral and ethical values are stressed more than the intellectual-rational qualities. The Talisayon & Ramirez study precisely jibed with the study of Pilar (1989: 15) wherein the career executives in public agencies pointed out the qualities necessary for effective executive leadership, namely: integrity, honesty, dedication, ability to lead, decisiveness, and competence. Major qualities considered were implicated to values and to ability and competence.
Villacorta (1994: 73, 87) attributed the inability of the Philippines to achieve a strong state to the country’s colonial history which has only produced unjust social structures such as an oligarchy with its wealth based on land and exports of agriculture, the elite’s oligopolistic hold on the economy, authoritarian rule and more insurgency, social disorder, and political instability. Villacorta analyzed that it is the oligarchic control of the state which is the basic problem. To deal with these realities, a leader with a vision and a determination to achieve the vision is needed. The leadership must be rooted in personal credibility and one which can excite and inspire a people. With the support of the majority of the people, the leader can ward off the pressures of big politicians and oligarchs. The leader who can battle against these odds must possess the resolve to detach himself from the age-old system of patronage and to break up the oligopolies.
Miranda (n.d., in Alfiler & Nicolas: 98-99) roughly says the same thing that a strong and effective leadership can organize groups towards consensus assuring stability and keeping conflicts within manageable limits. Political leadership must strengthen the state and its political institutions to make them more responsive to citizens’ demands. Historically, however, power in the country has served oligarchic interests that have been responsible for the uneven distribution of political and economic power in the
A group of studies dwelt on the management/leadership styles of individual high-ranking government officials. Endriga (1982) looked at the leadership role of Francisco Tantuico while he was the Commission on Audit (COA) head while he was pushing for administrative reforms to professionalize COA. Varela (1996) also discussed the role of leadership in creating and changing the administrative culture in the Civil Service Commission, the National Power Corporation, the Department of Public Works and Highways, the Department of Health, Bureau of Customs, and the Commission on Immigration and Deportation. D. Reyes (n.d., in Alfiler & Nicolas, 1997: 103) wrote full case studies on the executive leadership styles of Roilo Golez as head of the Bureau of Posts, Jose Alcuaz of the National Telecommunications Commission, Judge Remedios Fernando of the Land Transportation and Regulation Board (LTFRB), and Elfren Cruz of the Metro Manila Commission. Other high government officials’ administrator role also found their way into academic papers of graduate students. These included Patricia Sto. Tomas as CSC chairperson, Corazon Alma de Leon as DSWD Secretary, Salvador Escudero III as Secretary of Agriculture, Pura Ferrer Calleja as Director of the Bureau of Labor Relations, among others (Alfiler & Nicolas, 1997: 103).
A study of Agpalo (1988: 3-5) classified Filipino leaders using two dimensions: organization and ideology. His four types of Filipino leaders are: 1) the Supremo as exemplified by Andres Bonifacio who had a strong organization in the Katipunan and an ideology contained in the Decalogue, 2) the Visionary as the leader who has an ideology but a weak organization to which Jose Rizal is an example, 3) the Organization Man as the leader with a strong organization but without an ideology (Gen. Fabian Ver represents this type), and 4) the Paradux, a term which applies to traditional Filipino politicians elected to Congress who do not have ideology and a strong organization. Agpalo sees the Supremo type as the most effective leader, the best of the four types. He fits former president, Ferdinand Marcos’ leadership as of the Supremo type, while Corazon Aquino would be classified under the Paradux type.
Legaspi (2007) looked at the profiles of political leaders at the local government level. She calls the framework that she used as interactional in the sense that the leader influences both the follower and the organization and vice versa. She included in her framework leadership traits and leadership style behaviors. Her book analyzed the leadership of the municipal mayors of Pangil, Laguna and of Goa, Camarines Sur; the city mayors of
. Tadena (1970) pointed out efforts of the government to insure efficient public service. As early as 1971, public administration in the
Jose D. Lina, former DILG Secretary, advocated the possibility of developing some kind of performance standards for local governments that would serve as some kind of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (Brillantes, 2001). There are also suggestions to the effect that public administration should adjust to the emerging globalization of the world’s economic and political scene. Globalization has served to reshape the topography of public administration dynamics, particularly in policy-making and service delivery systems. It has rendered public administration sensitive to the formation of public administrative systems compatible with the demands and pressures of transitional interplay (Reyes, 2000).
A more recently published book is Reinventing Government; The Experience of Makati, which is edited by A.B. Brillantes, Jr., et al (2011). It is all about the governance of the City of
This section comprises literature that describes the characteristics or profile of the two cities of
A book that could provide a perspective on the difference between the administration of Mayor Bayani Fernando (1992-2001) and the administration of his wife, Marides Fernando (2001-2010) is Marikina City: The Past 15 Years. This is published by the city government. The book touches on the idea, philosophies and projects of the two mayors, along with their similarities and contrasts.
An article published in River City Gazette, Vol. 11, No. 1 (February 20, 2000), titled “Taga-Marikina ka,” was written by a
The city government in 2003 published the “Information Handbook on Community Policing and Police Procedures.” The handbook shows the inner workings of the different offices of the city hall. The book of Bayani Fernando titled “Disiplina sa Bangketa” (2006) may be all about MMDA where Bayani Fernando once served as Chair but it is material also for the philosophy of discipline in the city of Marikina knowing that he started being recognized as the discipline-wielder so that the residents of the city will make their city clean and green.
Gonzalez (2009: 7) gives a narration of the evolution of
The official website of Marikina City government (http://www.marikina.gov.ph) puts out information on the history of the city, the city government’s vision/mission, structure, the component offices, their functions and key personnel. The researcher’s own blog, “The Emergence of Marikina Way,” at http://marikinaideology.blogspot.com/ (Dulay, 2011) is a collection of papers about
The history of
1887 through the efforts of Don Laureano "Kapitan Moy" Guevarra. Andres Bonifacio was said to have passed by Mariquina before he and the Katipuneros went to the caves of Montalban.
Shortly after the
The city is bordered on the west by
The city is divided into two (geographical) districts: Districts 1 and 2. The southern portion of the city is District 1. Winning at least 78 awards and recognitions, both local and abroad, in a span of just 12 years,
The original settlers are Tagalogs and so the main language is Filipino. But throughout the centuries, there has been constant migration of the Visayans, Bikolanos, Ilokanos, Chinese, and Spaniards to
One of the most important places in the city is
Shoe manufacturing in
The city's former Bigasang Bayan is presently being rehabilitated to become the
The rise of the shoe and other industries in
The city soon became a victim of runaway growth, resulting in the
In 1992, the city found a new direction under the dynamic leadership of Mayor Bayani "BF" Fernando (later, Chairman of Metropolitan
Positive proof of the city's standing can be demonstrated by the numerous awards and citations that have been bestowed to the city. The most recent and most prestigious of which are the 2003
The city government’s mission is summed up in three words: "A Little Singapore.”
In education, the city government prides itself in giving free education to its quality free education to its constituents through its 14 primary schools and six secondary schools including one science high school, the
Under the urban renewal program of the incumbent administration, some of the public markets had been refurbished and given a fresher look, like the Marikina Public Market also known as Marikina Market Mall (or People's Mall), the biggest and cleanest market in Metro Manila. One of the popular malls is the
As for the city’s banking services, almost all of the major commercial banks in the
Thriving proof of the city's continued quest for excellence is the
The location of
below – as well as that of
Map 1. Location of
In the case of
Neira (1994) also had a book on “Glimpses into the History of
The website http://www.jveejercito.com/ cites the accomplishments of JVE. There are a lot of accomplishments that marked JVE’s administration. JVE has reduced the incidence of poverty in San Juan, the lowest in the Philippines according to the National Statistics Coordinating Body (NSCB), achieved a 200% revenue increase within four years, and earned recognition from the Commission on Audit a the best fiscally-managed municipality in the Philippines. The sound financial management of
It was in his term that because of the economic boom that
JVE’s brand of leadership was demonstrated in his being able to get the support of the business sector and the NGOs, proof of the trust and confidence he had built up. Not only that, JVE chose to unite the opposition to make San Juan the most progressive city in the country, and to ease the problems of the poor in
A lot of leadership theories exist, all trying to link leadership to organizational or group performance as well as success. So far, no theory of leadership has provided a satisfactory explanation of the leadership phenomenon (Gill, 2006: 60). A reason is that the proponents proceed on separate tracks, resulting in limited or partial descriptions and explanations. Few try to link the theories to one another (Avery, 2004: 67).
The study uses a theoretical framework that draws from the cognitive stand, specifically the human information processing approach. In general, human decision-making reflects a process that starts with how the mind processes stimuli from the outside world. The leader, because of his position in the community and his accountability to the people as a result of that status, is assumed to be a sharper observer of events in the environment than ordinary individuals. He is also assumed to be constantly observing and processing the stimuli because it is on these events that he may be basing certain potential decisions in the future, especially with regards to his constituency.
The leader subsequently frames or defines any relevant set of stimuli to his schemas and scripts (knowledge structures in the human mind on the basis of previous experiences and created or the sake of pattern recognition, categorization and memory recall) (Lord & Maher, 1993). The schemas and scripts are made up of the content of beliefs, values, and conceptual perspectives.
The schema concept has been categorized as being of four types (Fiske & Taylor, 1991; Taylor & Crocker, 1987, in Augoustinos & Walker, 1995: 36, 39, 41): 1) person schemas (trait prototypes), 2) self schemas, 3) role schemas (knowledge structures people have of the norms and expected behaviors of specific role positions in society), and 4) event schemas. Event schemas are cognitive scripts that describe the sequential organization of events in everyday activities (Schank & Abelson, 1977, in Augoustinos & Walker, 1995: 41). Schemas enable an individual to anticipate the future, set goals, and then make plans and strategies to achieve goals. The central function of schemas is to lend organization to experiences. Schemas influence and guide what social information will be encoded and retrieved from memory. Schemas facilitate the recall of information.
The leader’s frame is his cognitive image of the situation given his previous experiences. A sense of meaning or emotional attachment emerges (Beach & Connolly, 2005: 16-19). The meanings and emotions generated provide to the leader a positive or negative regard to the data from the environment. Some schemas are characterized by an affective/evaluative component, and that when an instance is matched against a schema, the affect/evaluation stored within the schema structure is used. An individual experiences negative arousal at the sight of a traditional politician for example. People fear in the presence of a dentist. Affect and evaluation have associative links to the schema. They are cued by categorization (fitting an instance to a schema) (Augoustinos & Walker, 1995: 48, 51).
Options are then arrayed based on the negative and positive affectation on people, objects and events. The leader selects the option that he judges the most or the best one to do to the community that he serves.
Figure 1 illustrates the interplay of various factors of the human information processing model to leadership study.
Figure 1. Factors in the leadership human information processing model.
Thus, the theoretical framework of the process of leadership decision-making goes through seven phases or stages:
1. Perception of events (stimuli)
2. Framing using the brain’s schema, scripts
3. Construction of meanings,
4. Attachment of positive emotion/attitude to meanings,
5. Options arrayed,
6. Selection of best option, and
In the case of one leader in the study (Marides Fernando), events are observed, then framed using her own schemas and scripts, after which the events are clothes with a certain meaning on the basis of Fernando’s experiences. As a result, she attaches a positive or negative regard to those observed events. A range of options are arrayed from best to worst. He selects the best one, and decides to implement it.
It is a process approach because there is a sequence from start to finish and the whole process is subdivided into stages or phases.
As can be seen, the theoretical framework has also elements of the leadership behavior (style) and situation or contingency theory. The behavior is the preferred pattern of reading the observed events on the basis of a frame. In the case of Fernando and JV, the frame is the set of business management concepts and principles. It is through this frame or lens that the situation is defined by the leaders (Hammond, 1955, in Beach & Connolly, 2005). The difference between the two leaders leadership style is that Fernando anchors the frame in relation to a vision and her own set of business oriented values (being a daughter of business tycoon Meneleo Carlos) while JVE anchors the frame in relation to the relevant situation.
There is then a human information processing approach to the study of leadership integrated with leadership style and situational approaches.
CHAPTER 3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The Causative Explanation between Independent and Dependent Variable
In this study, the leadership factors to examine are the leader’s organizational value orientations and beliefs on one hand and its relation to leadership performance on the other hand. The former functions as the independent variable while the latter serves as the dependent variable. Not all organizational value orientations are covered in the study, by the way. Only the leader’s core value orientations and beliefs associated with relationships of people in the community, and with the use of resources human, financial, or physical in running the city government.
The leader is assumed to have developed a set of value orientations and beliefs built up starting from early childhood socialization. Over time, his exposure to certain norms, standards, and practices, along with the values and beliefs attached to them, has provided him with solid schemas and scripts of how to run organizations and local governments, how to manage human resources, and how to act as a leader for the good of everyone in the community. Indeed, the leader already possesses an arsenal of values, beliefs, and orientations by the time he gets elected to the top position of a public organization.
In leadership (the context of the study pivots around the two city mayors), the core value-orientations that may be assumed as the source of the beliefs and attitudes of the city mayor and then the guide of his decision and behavior in leading, facilitating, and enabling people include:
1. Respect for the dignity of the human person. A leader who is pro-people
would always think of programs and projects that would improve the quality of
their lives for he cannot bear to see his poor fellowmen suffer while he and the
rich in the community enjoy comfortable lives. Such a mayor would be
interested that his fellowmen have the same rights to live a just and
comfortable life much as a Christian is duty-bound to help his fellow creatures
of God. The town mayor is activated by a belief that all men are created equal
in the eyes of God and in the eyes of the law.
2. Service to the people. Service is innate in the heart of the town mayor. In all
his activities as the city’s leader, he always is motivated to serve the people.
At the heart of serving the people is a belief that he who has the resources and
the power must use it to help others, and not to use it for one’s selfish needs.
Moreover, the concept of the mayor’s service is that it is voluntary, freely
given, and not with strings attached.
3. Love of country and one’s fellowmen. The truly Filipino leader must have in
him the love of the
grew up. He cannot deny that as a Filipino, he shares in the accumulated
historical experiences of the people living in the
pride in his being born Filipino, and proud of the country’s physical
endowments, of its resources which when optimally used would result in
substantial benefits for the country and the Filipinos.
4. There are better ways of managing the limited resources of the city for the good
and benefit of every one in the city. If the city is to go forward and be
progressive, it must depart from previous ways of conducting governance.
Except for some few administrations, the traditional way of running the city
government was to use the city resources for one’s enrichment. It was “bad”
by that criterion alone. The new governance must not repeat the mistakes of
the past; it must start on a new path by using these better or best practices, for
these have been proven elsewhere such as those used in Christian living and
those in the private business sector.
The above core value-orientations are well-established in the mind of the two city mayors because they were fortunate enough that the circumstances of their early socialization as a child have molded and reinforced these values in them. They were also fortunate to have experiences that sustained these values from then on up to adulthood. It was also fortunate that they became city mayors which they looked at as a big opportunity for them to translate into reality their own personal experiences and use it as their guideline in every program, project, and activity of the city government.
Operationally, then, the independent variable of core value-orientations is measured in terms of either presence or non-presence as guideline or check whenever the city mayors conceive and plan their various city government programs, projects, and activities. In the interview, the mention by the city mayors of the precise words or any associated words pertaining to the above core value-orientations automatically becomes data-points for the study.
It may also be conceptualized that the presence of the core value-orientations may be a range using a descriptive scale from slight to moderate to strong. A slight presence may be judged when the city mayor mentions during the interview the value-orientation concerned jut once without any elaboration. Presence is considered moderate when mention of it is accompanied by a sentence of elaboration. Presence is strong when the city mayor mentions it accompanied by two or more sentences of elaboration.
Among the factors that are deemed to lead programs and projects of the city government to success is the city mayor’s application of or reliance on the following strategic management tools and/or practices: 1) total quality management, 2) benchmarking, and 3) cost-effectiveness. These three are counted as strategic tools in navigating leadership performance to success. It must be noted that the other factors in leadership performance are beyond the scope of the study.
Total quality management is a “philosophy of management that is driven by customer needs and expectations and focuses on continual improvement in work processes” (Robbins & Coulter, 2004: 46-47). The “customer” has expanded to include anyone who interacts with the organization’s product or services internally or externally. According to Bovaird & Loffler (2006: 139), “quality” may refer to conformance to specification, or to fitness for purpose, or to meeting customer expectation, or to passionate emotional involvement. The authors also mention the ten characteristics of service quality, which are: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, competence, courtesy, credibility, security, access, communication, and understanding the customer. In this regard, they cite the example of quality of a swimming pool which would be its water cleanliness and temperature, equipment, reliability, conformance to norms, friendliness of service, and design and perception of the product.
Thus, use of TQM may involve three measures to examine its presence or non-presence as well as actual application:
1. Number of times the city mayor reflects on TQM concerns in decisions affecting the need for cooperation from various stakeholders of the city community, conformance to standards or norms, fast delivery of service, information access, distribution and sharing, and participation and involvement of the stakeholders in the implementation of programs, projects, and activities.
2. Number of times that TQM concerns are inputted into the city government program, project, or activity as the foundation of their philosophy or rationale, or their objectives, and
3. Number of times used as one of the criteria in judging the city mayor’s leadership performance.
Benchmarking is “the search for the best practices among competitors or non-competitors that lead to their superior performance” (Robbins & Coulter, 2004: 228-230). It is the “process through which a company learns how to become the best in some area by carefully analyzing the practices of other companies that already excel in that area” (Dessler, 2001: 175). Bovaird & Loffler (2006: 132) add that it is “the process of comparing performance across organizations.”
Jut like TQM, it is measured in terms of the following:
1. Number of times the city mayor reflects on benchmarking concerns in the decisions affecting the need for cooperation from various stakeholders of the city community, conformance to standards or norms, fast delivery of service, information access, distribution and sharing, and participation and involvement of the stakeholders in the implementation of programs, projects, and activities.
2. Number of times benchmarking concerns are inputted into the city government program, project, or activity as the foundation of their philosophy or rationale, or their objectives, and
3. Number of times used as one of the criteria in judging the city mayor’s leadership performance.
Cost-effectiveness is selecting among competing wants whenever resources are limited (http://www.acponline.org/>). Some authors rely on a quantitative formula to compute cost-effectiveness. It is the ratio of cost to outcome. But a descriptive example may suffice. For example, computer data input will be cheaper, faster and more accurate, thus cutting costs and red tape if information is shared between units rather than collected anew by each department in the city hall. Also, a one-stop shop promises the local governments economies of scale and scope while offering customers convenient access and more holistic responses to their needs (Bellamy, 206: 115).
Just as in TQM and benchmarking, cost-effectiveness is measured in terms of:
1. Number of times the city mayor reflects on cost-effectiveness concerns in the decisions affecting the need for cooperation from various stakeholders of the city community, conformance to standards or norms, fast delivery of service, information access, distribution and sharing, and participation and involvement of the stakeholders in the implementation of programs, projects, and activities.
2. Number of times cost-effectiveness concerns are inputted into the city government program, project, or activity, as the foundation of the their philosophy, or their objectives, and
3. Number of times used as one of the criteria in judging the city mayor’s leadership performance.
Leadership performance, the dependent variable, depends on many factors. In this study, leadership performance refers to the ongoing behavior of the city mayor in the process of conceiving, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the city government’s programs, projects, and activities. This variable comes full circle or becomes fully justified when any city government program, project, or activity is considered successful upon positive feedback from the stakeholders, primarily the city residents. As earlier stated, the city mayor’s performance is measured in terms of its use of the strategic tools of TQM, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness.
Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Level I Value orientations and beliefs of the leader Leadership Level II Value orientations and beliefs in Performance the use of business concepts and principles in running a public organization - total quality management - benchmarking - cost-effectiveness Intervening Variable Situation or case-to-case context
Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV)
Value orientations and beliefs
of the leader
Value orientations and beliefs in Performance the use of business concepts and
principles in running a public
- total quality management
Situation or case-to-case context
Figure 2. The conceptual framework of the study.
In the case of leadership performance, perceived as conduct or behavior, this dependent variable may have to examine the following measures: 1) conceiving or planning a program, project, or activity on the basis of assumptions, or philosophy, or rationale having to do with the value-orientations of the city mayor, 2) number of times the city mayor reflects about the rationale and objectives of the city program, project, or activity concerned, and 3) number of times he applies the strategic tools of TQM, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness in the city government’s programs, projects, and activities.
From the above, study formulates the following as initial hypotheses to guide and explore the conceptual relationships of the variables involved:
1. The more the leader has an earlier socialization in business practices involving the use of certain business concepts and principles, the more likely he applies the concepts of total quality management, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness.
2. The longer and more sustained the socialization of the leader in business practices, the more he tends to use business concepts and principles such as total quality management, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness.
3. The earlier and the longer and more sustained the socialization of the leader in business practices, the more he is successful in running the public organization.
4. The use of business management concepts/principles/practices in private business is indicated by: a) total quality management, b) benchmarking, and c) cost-effectiveness.
5. The difference in the quality of performance of the two city mayors under study is set off by the intervening variable. For M. Fernando, the one intervening variable is her set of vision for her leadership of the city government. For JV Ejercito, the intervening variable is his preference to look at his decisions on a case-to-case basis (situational).
Definition of Terms
Value-orientations – These are predispositions of an individual towards a selected set of values expressed in the tendency to believe and accept certain values over other sets of values. There is consistency in the value-orientations held by an individual. He cannot hold contrary or contradictory values. For example, honesty is a core value admired among leaders. Trust in a leader has considerable impact on team and organizational performance (Gill, 2006: 135-150).
Leadership performance – Leadership is affected by a leader’s strong sense of values. Values influence a leader’s way of thinking, and ways of interpreting information from the environment. Values act as a screen to filter data and information and thus become the mental organizing unit in the brain that are ultimately expressed in the kind of leadership decisions, actions, and behavior of the leader. The extent that the leader possesses positive values, the more likely his leadership performance is positive. The extent to which he possesses negative value orientations, the more likely his leadership performance is negative.
Leadership – Following the definition of Kotter (1995: 115), leadership is setting a direction, developing a vision o the future along with the strategies needed to produce the changes to achieve the vision. Another definition is the leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse's (2007: 3) definition in that leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.
Schemas – A schema is a mental structure which contains general expectations and knowledge of the world (Augoustinos & Walker, 1995: 32). These expectations are about people, social roles, events, or how to behave in certain situations learned through experience or socialization. The schemas in our heads provide hypotheses about incoming stimuli.
CHAPTER 4. METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research design of the study, the respondents and sampling criteria used, the instruments, data gathering processes involved, and the data analysis technique used.
The study uses the descriptive or qualitative analytical approach in social science research. The research design most appropriate to the examination of any leader’s value-orientations and their relationship to his performance is the case study. The case study counts as a very relevant research tool in investigations that aim to probe deeply into the dynamics of certain phenomena less amenable to direct observation, such as the human cognition, the human mind’s functioning, and ways in which the mind commits perceived objects, people, and events to memory as well as their easy recall. By in-depth examination of the leader’s values and his performance within its cultural, social, political, and economic context, the origins and development of leadership may be clarified, understood, and elaborated. The assumption of the case study is that the leader being interviewed may be trusted enough to answer and say the true state of things of his value orientations and his performance as a leader.
The investigation makes use of two single case studies. They are both city mayors of Metro Manila. Their value-orientations and how these relate to their leadership performance are examined, described, analyzed and then compared to see patterns of similarities and differences.
Respondents and Sampling Criteria
Local government leaders include the whole range from provincial, city, municipality, to barangay local executives. Of these, only two are selected. They are both city mayors of Metro Manila, namely: the former city mayor of
Why city mayors? One reason is their proximity of access to the researcher, in contrast to the distance any researcher must negotiate to get access to governors and municipal mayors. In the case of the
The two city mayors selected for case study may be deemed unique and special cases, that is, good representatives for a case study to work on. The two former city mayors are selected, thus, due to the following four criteria:
1. Their popular prestige/status as city mayors who have assumed their posts after the very successful administrations of their immediate relatives. Marides is the wife of Bayani Fernando, former city mayor of
2. Their implementation of significant programs and projects that benefited the city residents,
3. Their being young city mayors who were elected thrice, from their first three-year term, 2001-2004, then the second term, 2004-2007, and the last 2007-2010, and as such, their brand of leadership needs to be accounted for. They are still around and before anything happens to them, it is better that straight from them, they share their views of how they ran their city governments in their own administrative terms, and
4. Their city governments rank as highly improving and developing cities in Metro Manila. Such improvements and growth may be attributed to their quality of steersmanship as well-meaning city government executives.
The findings from the interviews of the two city mayors are supplemented by data from the questionnaire survey of sectoral representative in the city government. Being few in number, all of these sectoral representatives will be included as respondents of the questionnaire. Among the sectoral representatives in the city government are the youth sector (Kabataang Barangay chair), the labor sector, the business sector, the education sector, the environment sector, and the health and nutrition sector.
The study utilizes three instruments in data gathering. One is the interview schedule; the second is the questionnaire; and the third is the tape recorder machine.
The interview schedule is structured, being divided into two parts (Appendix 1). The first part consists of the socio-economic profile or characteristics of the city mayor. The second part is the main section, which is subdivided into several subsections, namely:
1. Socialization experiences from childhood to adulthood which may have contributed to the formation of values,
2. Socialization learnings from other people or significant others with regards to the cultural values of Filipinos as a whole,
3. Present values of Filipinos as well as the values of traditional Filipino leaders
4. Insights on the problems of the country and how these may be resolved through the intervention of government leaders,
5. Insights on what a government leader must do and must not do,
6. The kind of programs and projects that respond to the problems of the city residents,
7. How these programs and projects must be administered for them to be successful,
8. How the leader decides and what factors are considered in the decision-making, as well as the reasons for considering such factors.
Open question items will be formulated from each subsection. These items are also constructed in reference to the study’s statement of the problem, objectives, theoretical framework, and conceptual framework. A total of 20 open-ended question items are constructed for the two city mayor respondents.
The interview schedule draft completed, the dissertation adviser shall be consulted on the validity, relevance, and the grammatical construction of the statements. Any suggestions from the adviser shall be incorporated in the next draft up to the final draft.
On hand to help the researcher capture the precise verbal exchange during the interview is the tape recording machine. Note-taking during the interview may not capture verbatim what the city mayor respondent may say. In this regard, the tape recorder equipped with high-power reception of sounds shall be of great service. The presence of the tape recorder may bring certain signals to the city mayor respondent, but the researcher shall assure him that delicate data will be treated confidentially and that before the approved final defense draft may be bound, the researcher shall first show to the city mayor for his approval.
The other main instrument used for purposes of confirming and validating the interview schedule is the questionnaire (Appendix 2). This is reserved for perceptions of followers selected on sectoral basis. They will be asked questions on the programs, projects, and other accomplishments of the city mayors under study. A total of eight question items make up the leadership perceptions questionnaire or the sectoral representatives.
The proposal approved, the researcher shall start the data gathering phase of the investigation. The following are the data gathering activities:
1. Formal letter to be sent to the city mayor respondents requesting for an
interview date with attached note of approval from the researcher’s adviser, as well as copies of the dissertation abstract and the interview schedule. An email may also be sent to the city mayor respondents, assuming the researcher has their email address.
2. Follow-up through the telephone or the email after a wait of a week from the date the letter was sent,
3. Once the city mayor respondent agrees, the interview date, time and venue are agreed on by both interviewer and interviewee,
4. The actual interview. On the agreed date, the researcher goes to the agreed venue bringing with him his interview schedule, notes, tape recorder, and pencils. The researcher asks the questions according to the sequence in the interview schedule, with the tape recorder running to document the verbal exchange between interviewer and interviewee. Simultaneously, the researcher may take down notes selectively (not all the time), writing down his own comments and inferences to the reply of the city mayor respondent to a particular question item asked. The selective note-taking may also reflect the researcher’s personal observations, feelings and attitudes to the replies coming from the interviewee.
5. The researcher may request for extended time if the allotted time for interview does not suffice, but only upon the consent of the city mayor,
6. The interview finished, the researcher may need to clarify with the city mayor that in case some questions not in the interview schedule needed to be asked, he may have to come back for the follow-up interview. If it is only a minor one, the researcher may just have to contact the city mayor by email or telephone or mobile phone, whichever contact mode the latter wants the researcher to use.
7. The documentation from the tape recorder is transcribed and then consolidated together with the researcher’s notes during the interview. Transcription may take a week. Some parts of the transcription may be verbatim, but the minor exchanges may be briefly paraphrased. Any inconsistency shall be decided in favor of the tape recorder’s documentation, unless clarified with the city mayor by any of the contact modes approved by the city mayor.
8. The researcher starts the analysis of the answers of the city mayor to the questions in the interview schedule.
Data gathering for the second instrument proceeds by looking at the list of sectoral representatives at the city hall. The list may only contain a few names and whatever the final number of sectoral representatives, they will be sought out and requested to fill up the questionnaire. The items in the questionnaire are of the multiple choice type based on the Likert scale of Strongly Agree-Agree-Neutral-Disagree-Strongly Disagree.
The data from the interview schedule and from the transcribed tape recorder a well as from the questionnaire having been consolidated, content analysis follows. The order of analysis may first use the sequence of the eight subsections of the interview schedule. The questionnaire results may be analyzed according to the variables spelled out in the conceptual framework, that is, according to value-orientations (independent variable) and the leadership performance (dependent variable) of the city mayor under study.
The resulting narration and description may be “thick” but this is the nature of a qualitative study, reflecting the in-depth investigation of a phenomenon.
Alfiler, Ma. C. P. & Nicolas, E.E. (1997). Leadership studies in the
Augoustinos, M. & Walker,
Avery, G.C.(2004). Understanding leadership; Paradigms and cases.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations.
_______. (1990, Winter). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18, (3): 19-31.
_______. (1990). Handbook of leadership; Theory, research and managerial applications.
Beach, L.R. & Connolly, T. (2005). The psychology of decision making; People in organizations.
Bellamy, C. (2003). Moving to e-government; The role of ICTs in the public sector. In T. Bovaird & E. Loffler (Eds.), Public management and governance (113-125).
Bouckaert, G. & Van Dooren, W. (2003). Performance measurement and management in public sector organizations. In T. Bovaird & E. Loffler (Eds.), Public management and governance (127-136).
Bourne, L.E., Jr., Dominowski, R.L., Loftus, E.F., & Healy, A.F. (1986). Cognitive processes.
Bovaird, T. & Loffler, E. (Eds.) (2003). Public management and governance.
Bovaird, T. & Loffler, E. (2003). Quality management in public sector organizations. In T. Bovaird & E. Loffler (Eds.), Public management and governance (137-149).
Brillantes, A.B., Jr. (2001, January-April). Doing things differently: Innovations in local governance in the
Brillantes, A.B., Jr., Reyes, D.R., Lopos, B.E., & Tiu Sonco, J.O., III (Eds.) (2011). Reinventing a local government in the
Campbell, D.P. (1991).
Cariño, L. & Guiza, E.C. (2001, July). Devolution for democracy: Good practices cases from the
Chemers, M.M. (1995). Contemporary leadership theory. In J.T. Wren (Ed.), The leader’s companion; Insights on leadership through the ages (83-99).
Ciulla, J.B. (2006). Ethics; The heart of leadership. In T. Maak & N.M. Pless (Eds.), Responsible leadership (17-32).
Cooper, P.J., et al (1997). Public administration for the twenty-first century.
Covey, S.R. (1992). Principle-centered leadership.
Cruz, M. (Ed.) (2003). Information handbook on community policing and police procedures. City Goverment of
David, F.R. (2009). Strategic management concepts and cases.
David, H. (2003). Ethics and standards of conduct.” In T. Bovaird & E. Loffler (Eds.), Public management and governance (213-223).
De Guzman, R.P. & Reforma , M.A. (1992). Local government: Organization, power and functions, relations with central government. In P. Padilla (Ed.), Strengthening local government administration and accelerating local development.
De la Paz, R. S. (2000). Taga-Marikina ka.
Denhardt, J. & Denhardt, R. (2003). The new public service; Serving, not steering.
Dessler, G. (2001). Leading people and organizations in the 21st century.
blogspot.com/ Retrieved on April 7, 2011.
Dutton, J.E. & Jackson, S.E. (1987). Categorizing strategic issues: Links to organizational action.
Fernando, B. (2009). Disiplina sa bangketa.
Forbes, M., Hill, C.J., &
Frederickson, H.G. & Smith, K.B. (2003). The public administration theory primer.
Gill, R. (2006). Theory and practice of leadership.
Gioia, D.A. & Poole, P.P. (1984). Scripts in organizational behavior.
Gonzalez, D.T. (Ed.) (1999). The will to change;
Gozdz, K. (1993). Building community as leadership discipline. In M. Ray & A. Rinzler (Eds.), The new paradigm in business: Emerging strategies for leadership and organizational change (107-119).
Harrison, M.I. & Shirom, A. (1999). Organizational diagnosis and assessment; Bridging theory and practice.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1995). Behavioral theories of leadership. In J.T. Wren (Ed.), The leader’s companion; Insights on leadership through the ages (114-148).
Hollander, E.P. & Julian, J.W. (2008) Contemporary trends in the analysis of leadership processes. In J.L. Pierce & J.W. Newstrom (Eds.), Leaders & the leadership process (15-21).
Hughes, R.L., Ginnett, R.C., and Curphy, G.J. (1999). Leadership; Enhancing the lessons and experience.
Jago, A. G. (1982). Leadership: Perspectives in theory and research. Management Science, 28(3): 315-336. Retrieved from Http://www.nwlink.com/ February 13, 2012.
Kotter, J.P. (1995). What leaders really do. In J.T. Wren (Ed.), The leader’s companion; Insights on leadership through the ages (114-123).
Kouzes, James M. & Posner, Barry Z. (1987). The leadership challenge.
Legaspi, P.E. (2007). Profiles of political leaders at the local government level.
Loffler, E. (2003). Governance and government; Networking with external stakeholders. In T. Bovaird & E. Loffler (Eds.), Public management and governance (163-174).
Lord, R.G. & Maher, K.J. (1993). Leadership and information processing; Linking perceptions and performance.
Lorenzo, C. (Ed.) (2007).
_______ (2006). Responsible leadership; A relational approach. In T. Maak & N.M. Pless (Eds.), Responsible leadership (33-53).
Mandler, G. (1975). Mind and body: Psychology of emotion and stress.
_______ (1985). Cognitive psychology: An essay in cognitive science. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Mangahas, J.V. & Leyesa, M.D.L. (1998, July-October). Improving government administration through TQM. Philippine Journal of Public Administration, 42 (3-4): 203-235.
Murphy, A.J. (2008). A study of the leadership process. In J.L. Pierce & J.W. Newstrom (Eds.), Leaders & the leadership process (12-14).
Nadler, D.A. & Tushman, M.L. (1995). Beyond the charismatic leader; Leadership and organizational change. In J.T. Wren (Ed.), The leader’s companion; Insights on leadership through the ages (108-113).
Neira, E. (1994). Glimpses into the history of
Newstrom, J.W. (2011). Organizational behavior.
Newstrom, J.W. & Davis, K. (1993). Organization behavior: Human behavior at work.
Northouse, G. (2007). Leadership theory and practice. Thousand Oaks/London: Sage Publications, Inc.
Osborne, D. & Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing government; How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector.
Panganiban, E. (1990). Evolution of theories of local government: Democracy and efficiency, towards a democratic-efficient framework of local government in the
Pruzan, P. & Miller, W.C. (2006). Spirituality as the basis of responsible leaders and responsible companies. In T. Maak & N.M. Pless (Eds.), Responsible leadership (69-92).
Reyes, D.R. (1994, April). Reinventing government and bureaucracy in the
_______ (1998, July-October). Public sector reengineering: Practice, prospects and problems. Philippine Journal of Public Administration, 42 (3-4): 184-202.
Robbins, S.P. & Coulter, M. (2004). Management.
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2010). Essentials of organizational behavior.
Rost, J.C. (1991). Leadership for the twenty-first century.
Salazar, Z.A. (1997). Limang panahon ng pamumunong bayan sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. In E. de la Torre (Ed.), Pamumunong bayan: Karansan, katanungan at kinabukasan (17-26).
Senge, P. (1993). The art & practice of the learning organization. In M. Ray & A. Rinzler (Eds.), The new paradigm in business: Emerging strategies for leadership and organizational change (125-138).
Shermerhorn, J. R., Jr., Hunt, J.G., Osborn, R.N., & Uhl-Bien, M. (2011). Organizational behavior. John Wiley & Sons.
Stogdill, R. M.(1989). Stogdill's handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. Bass, B. (ed.)
_______. (1995). Personnel factors associated with leadership. In J.T. Wren (Ed.), The leader’s companion; Insights on leadership through the ages (127-132).
Villacorta, W.V. (1994, June). The curse of the weak state; Leadership imperatives for the Ramos government. Contemporary
Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership in organizations.
Zhang, Li-fang & Sternberg, R.F. (2006). The nature of intellectual styles.
“Comments in support of Marides Fernando.” (http://www.worldmayorcom/). Retrieved March 7, 2012.
Department of Tourism. “
Appendix 1. The Interview Schedule
Name of Interviewee: ________________________________________
Date and time of interview: ___________________________________
Venue of interview: __________________________________________
A Interviewee’s Profile
Date of birth: __________________________
Place of birth: _________________________
Town/Province of origin: __________________________________
Highest educational attainment: ________________________________
Religious affiliation: ________________________
Year of start of residence in the city: ____________
Name of spouse: ________________________________________
Number of children: _________
B. On value-orientations and leadership performance
1. Rank the top three major programs/projects implemented during your term. Then
briefly describe what these programs/projects want to achieve.
2. How come these were the programs and projects that you prioritized? What may be the main reasons for prioritizing these three programs/projects?
3. Did you devote a lot of time thinking on the rationale of these programs and projects?
4. If this is the case, are you influenced by your personal value-orientations the moment you start conceiving of certain activities to be implemented in the city government?
5. Which personal values affect your decisions?
6. When you conceive of a program or project, do you base it on you own implicit perspectives about
a. respect for human dignity?
b. service to the people?
c. love of country?
7. Is running the programs and project of the city government influenced by your value-orientation on the need to use private business concepts, principles, strategies, and practices?
8. Why do you think public programs and projects be managed according to concepts, principles, and practices used in private business operations?
9. Do you yourself believe in and a practitioner of the use of private business management concepts, principles, and practices as equally applicable in public programs and projects?
10. What would be the difference if public programs and projects be managed without the use of private business management concepts, principles, and practices? Would the differences be significant? Why should this be the case?
11. Why do you think public programs and projects management have to be import from private business certain concepts and principles to make these public programs and projects successful?
12. If private business management concepts, principles, and practices are used in the implementation of public programs and projects, to what extent have the following related value-orientations influenced your plans about your city government programs and projects?
- total quality management?
13. Do you factor in total quality management as a guide in your decision-making f these city government programs and projects? To what extent?
14. Do you actor in benchmarking as a guide in your decision-making of city government programs and projects? To what extent?
15. Do you factor in cost-effectiveness as a guide in your decision-making of city government programs and projects? To what extent?
16. Do you think that total quality management, benchmarking, and cost-effectiveness which are concepts, principles, and practice used in private business operations equally successful in city government programs and projects?
17. (for Marides) Did your experience as a daughter of a businessman expose you to such private business management concepts, principles, and practices? Can you illustrate an example from an actual episode either in your childhood or teenage days regarding this socialization exposure to private business management concepts, principles, practices?
18. (for JV) Could your experience as a son of a tried-and-tested politician of
19. Is it true that once you decide to use private business management concepts, principles, and practices in city government programs and projects, these same programs and projects will be implemented successfully?
20. Would you recommend to local government leaders too that in managing their own local government enterprises, for example, they need to use concepts, principles and practices that have been successfully applied in private business?
21. Would you then agree that value-orientations relevant to running city government programs and projects are the basis for leadership decisions and actions?
Appendix 2. The Sectoral Representative Perception Questionnaire.
I am a PhD student taking up the Doctor of Public Administration (DPA) degree at the National College of Public Administration and Governance (NCPAG) of the University of the
I would like you to help me in the data gathering for the above dissertation to fulfill the requirements of the DPA. Rest assured that your responses will be treated as highly confidential as possible. Your help in filling up this questionnaire will go a long way in the completion of my DPA studies.
By the way, I also teach as a professor in the College of Business Administration of Far Eastern University (main branch) at
Prof. Toti Dulay
Instructions: The question items are of the multiple-choice type. Mark with a check ( ) the column which corresponds with your answer.
1. The city government applies business concepts and practices in its programs and projects
| || || || || |
2. There are advantages when city government programs and projects are managed according to private business management concepts and practices.
| || || || || |
3. The city government’s programs and projects succeeded because it uses business concepts and practices.
| || || || || |
4. In other city governments, public programs and projects are managed without the use of private business concepts and practices.
| || || || || |
5. Without applying private business concepts and principles, any city government program and project will be less successful or will not succeed.
| || || || || |
6. The leadership of Marides Fernando (
| || || || || |
7. Leaders of local government need to base their plans and decisions in program and project implementation on the use of private business management concepts, principles, and practices to make these programs and projects succeed
| || || || || |
8. It is high time that local government executives run their programs and projects according to private business management concepts, principles, and practices.
| || || || || |