PA 327: Comparative Development Administration, Second Semester 2008-2009
Dean Alex Brillantes Jr., PhD;Submitted by: Sofronio “Toti” Dulay, DPA Student
Based on a graph produced by the World Bank dated 2007 entitled “Systems of Government and Control of Corruption Index” published in Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives, Accelerating Human Development in Asia and the Pacific by UNDP, there are basically 5 forms of government in Asia, namely; monarchy, one party, parliamentary, presidential and semi – presidential. These forms were further refined in a map in the same article identifying the forms of government of different countries in the Asia – Pacific Region. The political systems identified are parliamentary republics, presidential republics, semi – presidential republics, parliamentary constitutional monarchies in which the monarch does not personally exercise power, republics where the dominant role of a single party is enshrined in the constitution and finally, absolute monarchy. It was noted in the said map countries in the Asia – Pacific Region has different political system.
In the graph earlier stated, the forms of government of the Asia Pacific and other countries where plotted against the “Control of Corruption Index 2006” on the vertical axis. It was shown in the graph that the countries under the parliamentary system scored the highest in the control of corruption, with countries under one party system as the least able to control corruption. What is surprising is that countries with monarchy as their form of government scored higher than those under presidential and semi – presidential form of government.
In the article ”Democracy” by Hannah Beech, democracy was defined as “rule of the people” whereby citizens have the power to choose their leaders and live in a society characterized by freedom and justice. Among the five forms of governments, those countries that are in the one – party and monarchy are least democratic compared to those in the parliamentary, presidential and semi – presidential. Yet, in the World Bank graph stated above, the control on corruption is best on countries whose form of governments are in parliamentary and monarchy – a democratic and autocratic system respectively.
Based on above facts, we can conclude therefore that the control of corruption is not dependent on the forms of government or political system. Said otherwise, democracy is not a guarantee for lesser corruption.
Corruption, according to the UNDP article mentioned earlier, is commonly defined as the misused of entrusted power for private gain. The most common forms of corruption are bribery, embezzlement, extortion, abuse of discretion; favoritism, nepotism and clientelism; conduct creating or exploiting conflicting interest, and improper political contributions. There are six characteristics of corruption as a phenomenon, namely; gap between group and individual interest or between short – and long - term benefits; involvement of two or more parties since one can hardly corrupt with one’s own self; corruptions are done by consenting adults; its is done basically for benefit furtherance; the situations where corruption may happen are in those with existence of power and finally, there is a misuse of that power.
It is also noted in the article that women are less corrupt than men, generally speaking. Another thing, same article pointed out that larger countries seem to be more susceptible to corruption than smaller ones. There is an articulation that corruption can actually help economic performance by way of “greasing the wheels”, i.e. allowing businesses to get quicker decisions, cutting through red type and thus operate more efficiently. But the article debunks this articulation by saying that “for every case where corruption is suggested as a way of increasing efficiency, there are always cleaner courses of action that perform at least as well or better.”
A country therefore does not need to be democratic to eradicate corruption. But the article suggests that the more corrupt a country is, the lesser resources are being allocated to education, health and environment. If the ultimate goal of development is improving the lives of the people, then we can say that corruption is anti – development. Yet, corruption can exist in both democratic and autocratic societies.
The article of Beech earlier mentioned poised an alarmist stand on regarding democracy in Asia by saying that “most Asian nations now hold elections, yet true democracy still eludes the region.” The said article is not intended to correlate corruption with democracy, but purely about democracy as it evolves in Asia today. Basically, the article is saying that Asian democracies are showing undemocratic signs lately – mentioning the case of Thailand and even the fact that the LDP of Japan has been in power for so long making it somewhat harmful to democracy.
The connection of democracy and corruption was discussed by the UNDP article more; yet, the conclusion is that corruption can happen even in democratic and the so called “non – democratic” countries.
Therefore, it is basically fallacious or non – sequitur to say that we must be democratic first to eradicate corruption. Or absence of corruption will lead to democracy. Maybe, we can say that lesser corruption can lead to lessening of Sen’s “unfreedom”.
This leads me again to what Bayani Fernando is saying: do not blame the system for what happened to you or your government, rather than, given a system, what can you do to pursue the public good and improve the quality of lives of the people. (If I may add with my own words, life is too short to spend it always thinkering with the system of government like Cha Cha: go to the people..give them jobs and/or teach them how to put food on their table, otherwise, it is just like being “manangs “ in the churches who always pray to God but are not helping other people). It is basically management and decision making that matters. Management being planning, organizing, leading and controlling and decision - making being identifying the problem, generating alternatives that can solve the problem and selecting the best among the alternatives based on a set of criteria rooted on public good, good taste and excellence. Basically, Bayani Fernando knows all alone that corruption is not dependent on the system of government but on generic characteristics that are present in both democratic and undemocratic system of government. And this was confirmed by the two articles earlier that we are talking about.
Eventually, the whole thing about democracy, corruption, development – enhancement or worsening of these phenomena in a certain country - will go back to the framework that Professor Alex Brillantes has told in the class, that it has something to do with the interplay of generic concepts like structure, behavior and leadership. And the interplay of these concepts will be based on how one applies management and decision – making principles and techniques in the pursuit of public good and in improving the lives of the people, as Bayani Fernando would say it.
Saturday, February 21, 2009
Sunday, February 15, 2009
I missed my kid brother Jerry. He is so nice that in the last mass for him before his burial at OLA, the church was full of people who bid godbye to him. He has a lot of friends all over Marikina.
In his short life on earth, at 45, Jerry has the habit of making things light and funny that you will forget your problems and worries. Mayor Marides Fernando has a funny anecdote about Jerry. M.C.F. Basketball Team was organized by Jerry to jump start the campaign of then young housewife Marides Fernando. When she was invited by Jerry in the opening ceremony, she asked Jerry whats the meaning of M.C.F. Jerry, whose real name is Mariano Cerbito Dulay said: "Mam, ang ibig sabihin nyan eh Mariano Cerbito Foundation so hindi ka maaakusahan ng early campaigning."
Jerry would gamble so hard in some lamays. Minsan napataob nya yung bangka and got all the money in the table. To the surprise of everyone, he donated all the money to the relative of the dead. Jerry can not sing. Sintonado sya. But one day he was singing Bee Gee's "Dont Forget to Remember Me", and told me: "Kuya, kinanta ni BF to sa RiverBank kagabi, kaya ko rin pala."
His appearance is ironic - macho, may bigote - pero I realized just now that all his life, he has my mother with him. Just when I though na ako ang mama's boy. Lahat ng pamangkin nyang may problema,he will shelter them at his house and send them to school.Yes, at the time of his death, he was sending 5 of them to schools. Akala ko ako yung pinaka mabait sa angkan...si Jerry pala.
Jerry is an accounting graduate of one of the best universities in the country. He could have been a bank executive or a finance guy of a multinational company in Makati..but he decided to stay in the place where we grew up..as a KB chairman, Barangay Kagawad and Barangay Administrator. He love Marikina Heights and its people so much that he stayed by her through thick and thin.
I have been a veteran of national presidential campaigns - Erap and Roco. But one day, Jerry told me:"Kuya, si BF, dapat patakbuhin natin presidente...buyuin natin"..it turned out na the clamor for BF to run for president is already snowballing all over the country but that turned out to be the first salvo of my campaign works for Bayani Fernando for president (although I was also one of the campaign staff when BF first run for Mayor in 1988 based in Calumpang Market with Kap. Harry Singh as the Campaign Manager)
The last time Jerry visited me in my house in San Roque was one lazy Saturday a week before he died. We are about to take our lunch..he ate a lot..adobo..chicken..etc. While eating , he told my college daughter Lenlen, "Inaanak, pag nag asawa ka, dapat di ka maloloko ng asawa mo ha..dapat alam mong manghuli ha". We all laugh of his "advise". Then he told my only son Esdee, "Oh Esdee, dapat magaling kang mambabae ha..." . It was an unusually happy lunch..very unexpected. Now I realized it was his "huling habilin" to the my children.
Sana panaginip lang ito and one day I will wake up with Jerry still with us.....
Jerry, si Kuya Tutoy mo to.....bakit ka masyadong nagmamadali..we love you..we need you round here...
PASASALAMAT SA LAHAT NG MGA NAKIRAMAY:
In behalf of the Family of Kagawad Jerry Dulay, Angkan ng Dulay sa Lambak ng Marikina and all descendants of David Dula y Goiti, we wish to thank our friends and relatives who shared with our bereavement on the last days of Kagawad Jerry Dulay with us:
1. Mayor Marides Carlos Fernando for being the first one to extend Bayani Fernando and her family's condolences to our Clan, sent flowers, attended the wakes, sent some logistical supports and bus for the burial.
2. Vice Mayor Marion S.Andres,M.D.,for coordinating a "special - size" coffin and for being with the clan in the wake and in the burial.
3.Msgr. Mariano T. Balbago,Parish Administrator and First Rector of the Shrine,
Diocesan Shrine of Maria, Inang Mapag – ampon ng Marikina,J.P. Rizal St., Sta. Elena, Marikina City,for the Special Mass he personally presided and for the "special- size" burial place at the Shrine Cemetery.
4. Councilors Efren De Guzman and Boy Ponce for initiating a resolution signed by the City Council led by Acting Presiding Officer Councilor Boy Bolok Santos and city council Secretary Lolita E. de Leon expressing condolences to to our bereaved clan.
5. Kap. Edwin Adigue and his family for being on top of the situation for all the needed coordinations. Dr. Fabian Cadiz for a very nice history of Dulay Clan during the last testimonials to Jerry, and for being a kind source of strength for the clan way back in their college days.
6. SK Chairman John Po and his parents and his kagawads, for being with us on those bereavement days. Kagawads Letlet Adigue, Bobby Herrera,Weng Weng Cubarrubias, Martin Tindoc, Boy Reinoso,
7. Kap. Harry Singh, Kap. Tess Daza and Kap. Rudy Francisco for their show of sympathy and concerns, and ready presence and condolences.Kap. Apin de Guzman,Heidi Palanca of Legaspi City's Cherryland ,Ben Bautista,Vic and Fe Bago,Rep. Del. De Guzman,Julie Borje,Mary Justo, Duffie, Rep. Emil Ong, Onding Derpo, Charit Estanislao, Neya Cruz, Lydia de Guzman, Rep. Ome Candazo, Col. Alex Tuprio,Pastor Joey Casas, Boy Cruz, Reggie Pascual,Johnny Cunanan, Fiscal Eddie Guardiano, Judge Garalza,Councilors Tambuli, Ferdie Marco, Donn Favis, Bong Ubaldo, Boggs Reyes,Larry Punzalan, Pag – Ibig President Miro Quimbo, Dr. Tonette Corral,Atty. Cudiamat, Albert Cruz, Joe Balete,
8. Marist PTA, Knights of Columbus Marist Council and Concepcion Council, Alumni of the Ponciano Bernando High School, Asian Institute of Management, Marco Riders, Marikina Heights barangay Employees and Kagawads, Guardian members, friends from the Partido ng Masang Pilipino, Barangay Tanods,pamilya nga mga kasamahan ng tatay namin sa Francisco Cacho and Co., Inc. - the developers of Conceocion Dos and part of Concepcion Uno, Parang and Marikina Heights, Del de Guzman Riders, Marikina Heights Riders Club, Magnificat Parish, What The Bible Says Ministry, Magnificat Choir, St. Gabriel Parish, MSAT Batch 78, Neighbors of I. Mendoza St. in San Roque., FEU students, Neighbors from Friendly Village, NAJAMS, supports from different barangays in Marikina, Couples for Christ, friends from Bicol Visaya Atbp, Inc., St. Camillus Cursillista Group, FEU Faculty Club, Marikina Police, doctoral students of UP Public Administration, neighbors from Marikina Heights, Lupon of Marikina Heights, City Hall Employees, friends from Aksyon Democratiko, Guardiano family of the Iglesia ni Cristo, some members of the UP Vanguard,
9. For all the clan members and relatives from Tondo, Candawid, Cavite, Bulacan, Pasig, Cainta, San Mateo, Quezon City, and Marikina. Mga kababata at mga kabarkada namin.
10. Those who offered prayers, flowers, songs, masses, AV presentations, mass cards,offered cars, and supports.
11. All other friends and neighbors, and relatives who attended the lamay and filled the OLA Shrine during the last mass ..salamat, salamat po.
Republika ng Pilipinas
SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD NG MARIKINA
RESOLUSYON Blg. 020
Serye ng Taong 2009
RESOLUSYON NA NAGPAPAHAYAG NG PAKIKIRAMAY SA MGA NAULILA NI BARANGAY KAGAWAD MARIANO "JERRY" DULAY NG BARANGAY MARIKINA HEIGHTS, LUNGSOD NG MARIKINA.
Introduced by: Councilor EFREN S.DE GUZMAN
and Councilor ROBERTO C.PONCE
Co- sponsored by: Vice Mayor MARION S.ANDRES, M.D.
Councilor FRANKIE C.AYUSON
Councilor SERAFIN Y. BERNARDINO
Councilor LEANOR F.CARLOS
Councilor ANNA B. DAYAO
Councilor DONN CARLO B. FAVIS
Councilor SAMUEL S.FERRIOL
Councilor HILARIO A. PUNZALAN
Councilor WILFRED S. REYES
Councilor VICTORIANO A.SABINIANO
Councilor PONCIANITO E.SANTOS,JR.
Councilor THADDEUS ANTONIO M.SANTOS
Councilor PONCIANO T.UBALDO,JR.
Councilor FELIPE C.URRUTIA
SAPAGKAT, si Kagawad Mariano "Jerry" Dulay ay naglingkod sa sa Barangay Marikina Heights bilang Barangay Kagawad mula taong 1994 hanggang sa sya ay pumanaw noong ika-29 ng Enero, 2009;
SAPAGKAT, si Kagawad Dulay ay maaalala ng kanyang mga kamag-anak, kaibigan, kasamahan sa serbisyo publiko dahil sa kanyang mga nagawa sa kanyang panunungkulan bilang Barangay Kagawad;
SAPAGKAT, ang pagkamatay ni Kaqawad Dulay aybisang malaking kawalan sa maraming taong naging bahagi ng kanyang buhay;
NGAYON AT SA KADAHILANAN NG LAHAT DITO AY NASASAAD, PINAGPASIYAHAN AT SA PAMAMAGITAN NITO AY PINAGPAPASIYAHAN ng SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD ng MARIKINA na sa kapulungan ay nabubuo, na magpahayag ng ng pakikiramay sa mga naulila ni Barangay Kagawad Mariano "Jerry" Dulay ng Barangay Marikina Heights, Lungsod ng Marikina.
PINAGPAPASIYAHAN PA RIN, na pagkakalooban ng sipi ng Resolusyong ito ang pamilya ni Kagawad Dulay para sa kanilang kaalaman.
PINAGTIBAY ng SANGGUNIANG PANLUNGSOD ng MARIKINA, ngayong ika -4 ng Pebrero,taong 2009.
Pinatunayang ang Resolutiong ito ay ipinasa sa ika - 5 na Pangkaraniwang Sesyon ng Sangguniang Panlungsod ng Marikina ngayong ika - 4 ng Pebrero, 2009.
LOLITA E.DE LEON
City Council Secretary
ATTESTED AND CERTIFIED TO BE DULY APPROVED:
THADDEUS ANTONIO M.SANTOS, JR.
President Pro-Tempore/Acting Presiding Officer